Imam Husain al-Shahid (a.s.)

Al-Husayn ibn 'Ali Sayyidu'sh-Shuhada


(Peace be Upon him)

 

Name: al-Husayn.
Title: Sayyidu'sh-Shuhada'.
Agnomen: Abu 'Abdillah.
Father' s name: 'Ali Amir al-Mu'minin.
Mother's name:Fatimah (Daughter of the Holy Prophet).
Birth: In Medina on Thursday, 3rd Sha'ban 4 AH.
Death: Martyred in Karbala' (Iraq) at the age of 57, on Friday, 10th Muharram 61 AH and buried there.


In the House of the Holy Prophet, which presented the best image of both the worlds - the heaven and the earth- a child who benefited humanity as if he was a Divine Impression reflecting the earth, was born on one of the nights of the month of Sha'ban.

His father was Imam 'Ali, the best model of kindness towards his friends and the bravest against the enemies of Islam, and his mother was Hadrat Fatimah, the only daughter and child of the Holy Prophet, who had as universally acknowledged, inherited the qualities of her father.

Imam Husayn, is the third Apostolic Imam.

When the good news of his birth reached the Holy Prophet, he came to his daughter's house, took the newly-born child in his arms, recited adhan and iqamah in his right and left ears respectively, and on the 7th day of his birth, after performing the rites of 'aqlqah, named him al-Husayn, in compliance with Allah's command.

'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas relates: "On the very day when Imam Husayn was born, Allah ordered angel Gabriel to descend and congratulate the Holy Prophet on His Behalf and on his own.

While descending, Gabriel passed over an island where the angel Futrus had been banished due to his delay in executing a commission assigned by Allah.

He was deprived of his wings and expelled to the island where he remained for several years praying and worshipping Allah and asking for His forgiveness.

"When the angel Futrus saw Gabriel, he called out, ' Where are you going, O Gabriel?' To this he replied, ' Husayn, the grandson of Muhammad is born, and for this very reason Allah has commanded me to convey His congratulations to His Apostle.

' Thereupon, the angel said, ' Can you carry me also along with you? May Muhammad recommend my case to Allah.'

Gabriel took the angel along with him, came to the Holy Prophet, offered congratulations to him on behalf of Allah and himself and referred the case of the angel to him.

The Holy Prophet said to Gabriel, 'Ask the angel to touch the body of the newly-born child and return to his place in Heaven.

' On doing this, the angle re-obtained his wings instantly and praising the Holy Prophet and his newly- born grandson, ascended towards the Heaven.

Hasan and Husayn, the two sons of the Holy Imam 'Ali ibn Abi Talib and Hadrat Fatimah, our Lady of Light, were respected and revered as the 'Leaders of the Youths of Paradise' as stated by the Holy Prophet.

The Holy Prophet Muhammad, peace be Upon him and his progeny, had openly prophesied that the faith of Islam would be rescued by his second grandson Husayn, when Yazid, son of Mu'awiayh, would endeavour to destroy it.

Yazid was known for his devilish character and brutish conduct.

He was known as the most licentious of men. The people having known and understood the character of Yazid, formed a covenant by which Mu'awiyah could not appoint Yazid as his successor.

This undertaking was given by Mu'awiyah to Imam Hasan from whom Mu`awiyah had snatched power.

Mu'awiyah violated this undertaking and nominated Yazid who succeeded his father.

Immediately as he came to power, Yazid began acting in full accordance with his known character.

He started interfering in the fundamentals of the faith and practiced every vice and wickedness freely with the highest degree of impunity and yet held himself out as the successor of the Holy Prophet, demanding allegiance to himself as the leading guide of the faith.

Paying allegiance to Yazid was nothing short of acknowledging the devil as Cod.

If a divine personality like the holy Imam Husayn had agreed to his authority, it would be actually recommending the devil to humanity in place of Cod.

Yazid demanded allegiance from the Holy Imam Husayn, who could have never agreed to it at any cost.

The people fearing death and destruction at the hands of the tyrant had yielded to him out of fear.

Imam Husayn said that come what- ever may, he would never yield to the devil in place of God and undo what his grandfather, the Holy Prophet had established.

The refusal of the Holy Imam to pay allegiance to this fiend, marked the start of the persecution of the Holy Imam.

As a result he had retired to Medina where he led a secluded life.

Even here he was not allowed to live in peace, and was forced to seek refuge in Mecca where also he was badly harassed, and Yazid plotted to murder him in the very precincts of the great sanctuary of Ka'bah.

In order to safeguard the great sanctuary, Imam Husayn decided to leave Mecca for Kufah just a day before tile haj (pilgrimage).

When asked the reason for the mysterious departure from Mecca foregoing the pilgrim- age which was only the next day Imam Husayn said that he would perform this year's pilgrimage at Karbala', Offering the sacrifice not of any animals, but of his kith and kin and some faithful friends.

He enumerated the names of his kith and kin who would lay down their lives with him in the great sacrifice at Karbala'.

The people of Kufah getting tired of the tyrannic and satanic rule of Yazid, had written innumerable letters and sent emissaries to Imam Husayn to come over and give them guidance in faith.

Although Imam Husayn knew the ultimate end of the invitations, he as the divinely chosen Imam could not refuse to give the guidance sought for.

When the Holy Imam with his entourage had reached karbala', his horse mysteriously stopped and would not move any further.

Upon this the holy Imam declared: "This is the land, the land of sufferings and tortures.

" He alighted from his horse, and ordered his followers to encamp there saying: Here shall we be martyred and our children be killed.

Here shall our tents be burned and our family arrested. This is the land about which my grandfather the Holy Prophet had foretold, and his prophecy will certainly be fulfilled."

On the 7th of Muharram water supply to the lmam's carnp was cut and the torture of thirst and hunger started.

the holy Imam's camp consisted of ladies, innocent children including babies and some male members of the Holy prophet's family; along with a small band of some faithful friends of Imam Husayn who had chosen to die with the Holy Imam, fighting against the devil for the cause of Allah.

* * *

The Day of 'Ashura (10th of Muharram): At dawn the Imam glanced over the army of Yazid and saw 'Umar ibn Sa'd ordering his forces to march to- wards him.

He gathered his followers and addressed them thus: "Allah has, this day, permitted us to be engaged in a Holy War and He shall reward us for our martyrdom.

So prepare yourselves to fight against the enemies of Islam with patience and resistance.

O sons of the noble and self-respecting persons, be patient ! heath is nothing but a bridge which you must cross after facing trials and tribulations so as to reach Heaven and its joys.

Which of you do not like to go from this prison (world) to the lofty palaces (Paradise ) ? " Having heard the Imam's address, all his companions were overwhelmed and cried out, "O our Master! We are ail ready to defend you and your Ahlu 'I-hayt, and to sacrifice our lives for the cause of Islam.

" Imam Husayn sent out from his camp one after an- other to fight and sacrifice their lives in the way of the Lord.

Lastly, when all his men and children had laid down their lives, Imam Husayn brought his six-month old baby son 'Ali al-Asghar, and offering him on his own hands, demanded some water for the baby, dying of thirst.

The thirst of the baby was quenched by a deadly poisoned arrow from the brute's forces, which pinned the baby's neck to the arm of the helpless father.

At last when the six-month old baby also was killed, Imam Husayn addressed Allah: "O Lord! Thy Husayn has offered in Thy way whatever Thou hath blessed him with.

Bless Thy Husayn, O Lord! with the acceptance of this sacrifice.

Everything Husayn could do till now was through Thy help and by Thy Grace." Lastly, Imam Husayn came into the field and was killed, the details of which merciless slaughter are heart rending.

The forces of Yazid having killed Imam Husayn, cut and severed his head from his body and raised it on a lance.

The severed head of the Holy Imam began glorifying Allah from the point of the lance saying, 'Allahu Akbar'.

"All glory be to Allah Who is the Greatest!" After the wholesale, merciless and most brutal slaughter of the Holy Imam with his faithful band, the help- less ladies and children along with the ailing son of Imam Husayn, Imam 'Ali Zaynu 'l-'Abidin, were taken captives.

* * *

Some Sayings of the Holy Prophet During his Lifetime with Reference to Imam Husayn: 1. Hasan and Husayn are the Leaders of the Youths of Paradise.

2. Husayn is from me and I am from Husayn, Allah befriends those who befriend Husayn and He is the enemy of those who bear enmity to him.

3. Whosoever wishes to see such a person who lives on earth but whose dignity is honoured by the Heaven- dwellers, should see my grandson Husayn. 4. O my son! thy flesh is my flesh and thy blood is my blood; thou art a leader, the son of a leader and the brother of a leader; thou art a spiritual guide, the son of a spiritual guide and the brother of a spiritual guide; thou art an Apostolical Imam, the son of an Apostolical Imam and the brother of an Apostolical Imam; thou art the father of nine Imams, the ninth of whom would be the Qa'im (the last infallible spiritual guide). 5. The punishment inflicted on the murderer of Husayn in Hell would be equal to half of the total punishment to be imposed on the entire sinners of the world.

6. When the Holy Prophet informed Hadrat Fatimah of the martyrdom in store for his grandson, she burst into tears and asked, "O my father ! when would my son be martyred?" "In such a critical moment," replied the Holy Prophet, "When neither I nor you, nor 'ALI would be alive." This accentuated her grief and she inquired again, "Who then, O my father, would commemorate Husayn's martyrdom? " The Holy Prophet said, "The men and the women of a particular sect of my followers, who will befriend my Ahlul-Bayt, will mourn for Husayn and commemorate his martyrdom each year in every century." Ibn Sa'd narrates from ash-Sha'bi: Imam 'Ali, while on his way to Siffin, passed through the desert of Karbala', there he stopped and wept very bitterly.

When interrogated regarding the cause of his weeping, he commented that one day he visited the Holy Prophet and found him weeping.

When he asked the Apostle of Allah as to what was the reason which made him weep, he replied, "O 'ALI, Gabriel has just been with me and informed me that my son Husayn would be martyred in Karbala', a place near the bank of the River Euphrates.

This moved me so much that I could not help weeping."

Anas ibn Harith narrates: One day the Holy Prophet ascended the pulpit to deliver a sermon to his associates while Imam Husayn and Imam Hasan were sitting before him.

When his address was over, he put his left hand on Imam Husayn and raising his head towards Heaven, said: "O my Lord! I am Muhammad Thy slave and Thy Prophet, and these two are the distinguished and pious members of my family who would fortify my cause after me.

O my Lord! Gabriel has in- formed me that my son Husayn would be killed. O my Lord! bless my cause in recompense for Husayn's martyrdom, make him the leader of the martyrs, be Thou his helper and guardian and do not bless his murderers."

Sir Muhammad Iqbal says: Imam Husayn uprooted despotism forever till the Day of Resurrection.

He watered the dry garden of freedom with the surging wave of his blood, and indeed he awakened the sleeping Muslim nation. If Imam Husayn had aimed at acquiring a worldly empire, he would not have traveled the way he did (from Medina to Karbala').

Husayn weltered in blood and dust for the sake of truth.

Verily he, therefore, became the bed-rock (foundation) of the Muslim creed; la ila ha illai Allah (There is no god but Allah).

Khwaja Mu'inu 'd-Din Chishti says: He gave his head, but did not put his hand into the hands of Yazid. Verily, Husayn is the foundation of la ila ha illa Allah.

Husayn is lord and the lord of lords.

Husayn himself is Islam and the shield of Islam. Though he gave his head (for Islam) but never pledged Yazid.

Truly Husayn is the founder of "There is no Deity except Allah."

Brown in his A Literary History of Persia writes: As a reminder, the blood-stained field of Karbala' where the grandson of the Apostle of God fell at length, tortured by thirst and surrounded by the bodies of his murdered kinsmen, has been at any time since then sufficient to evoke, even in the most lukewarm and heedless, the deepest emotion, the most frantic grief and the exaltation of spirit before which pain, danger, and death shrink to unconsidered trifles.

Yearly, on the tenth day of Muharram, the tragedy is rehearsed in Persia, in India, in Turkey, in Egypt, wherever a Shi'ite community or colony exists; . . . As I write it all comes back; the wailing chant, the sobbing multitudes, the white raiment red with blood from self inflicted wounds, the intoxication of grief and sympathy.

Allamah Tabatabai writes: Imam Husayn (Sayyidu sh- Shuhada', "the lord among martyrs"), the second child of 'ALI and Fatimah, was born in the year 4 A H, and after the martyrdom of his brother, Imam Hasan Mujtaba, became Imam through Divine Command and his brother's will.

Imam Husayn was Imam for a period of ten years, all but the last six months coinciding with the caliphate of Mu'awiyah.

Imam Husayn lived under the most difficult outward conditions of suppression and persecution.

This was due to the fact that, first of all, religious laws and regulations had lost much of their weight and credit, and the edicts of the Umayyad government had gained complete authority and power.

Secondly, Mu'awiyah and his aides made use of every possible means to put aside and move out of the way the Household of the Prophet and the Shi'ah, and thus obliterate the name of 'Ali and his family.

And above all, Mu'awiyah wanted to strengthen the basis of the caliphate of his son, Yazid.

who because of his lack of principles and scruples was opposed by a large group of Muslims.

Therefore, in order to quell all opposition, Mu'awiyah had undertaken newer and more severe measures.

By force and necessity Imam Husayn had to endure these days and to tolerate every kind of mental and spiritual agony and affliction from Mu'awiyah and his aides-until in the middle of the year 60 AH, Mu'awiyah died and his son Yazid took his place.

Paying allegiance (bay'ah) was an old Arab practice which was carried out in important matters such as that of kingship and governmentship.

Those who were ruled, and especially the well-known among them, would give their hand in allegiance, agreement and obedience to their king or prince and in this way would show their support for his actions.

Disagreement after allegiance was considered as disgrace and dishonour for a people and, like breaking an agreement after having signed it officially, it was considered as a definite crime.

Following the example of the Holy Prophet, people believed that allegiance, when given by free will and not through force, carried authority and weight.

Mu'awiyah had asked the well-known among the people to give their allegiance to Yazid, but had not imposed this request upon Imam Husayn.

He had especially told Yazid in his last will that if Husayn refused to pay allegiance he should pass over it in silence and overlook the matter, for he had understood correctly the disastrous consequences which would follow if the issue were to be pressed.

But because of his egoism and recklessness, Yazid neglected his father's advice and immediately after the death of his father ordered the governor of Medina either to force a pledge of allegiance from Imam Husayn or send his head to Damascus.

After the governor of Medina informed Imam Husayn of this demand, the Imam, in order to think over the question, asked for a delay and overnight started with his family toward Mecca.

He sought refuge in the sanctuary of God which in Islam is the official place of refuge and security.

This event occurred toward the end of the month of Rajab and the beginning of Sha'ban of 60 AH.

For nearly four months Imam Husayn stayed in Mecca in refuge.

This news spread throughout the Islamic world. On the one hand many people who were tired of the iniquities of Mu'awiyah's rule and were even more dissatisfied when Yazid became caliph, corresponded with Imam Husayn and expressed their sympathy for him.

On the other hand, a flood of letters began to flow, especially from Iraq and particularly the city of Kufah, inviting the Imam to go to Iraq and accept the leadership of the populace there with the aim of beginning an uprising to overcome injustice and iniquity. Naturally, such a situation was dangerous for Yazid.

The stay of Imam Husayn in Mecca continued until the season for pilgrimage when Muslims from all over the world poured in groups into Mecca in order to perform the rites of the hajj.

The Imam discovered that some of the followers of Yazid had entered Mecca as pilgrims (hajj) with the mission to kill the Imam during the rites of hajj with the arms they carried under their special pilgrimage dress (Ehram). The Imam shortened the pilgrimage rites and decided to leave.

Amidst the vast crowd of people he stood up in a short speech announced that he was setting out for Iraq.

In this short speech he also declared that he would be martyred and asked Muslims to help him in attaining the goal he had in view and to offer their lives in the path of God. On the next day he set out with his family and a group of his companions for Iraq.

Imam Husayn was determined not to give his allegiance to Yazid and knew full well that he would be killed.

He was aware that his death was inevitable in the face of the awesome military power of the Umayyads, supported as it was by corruption in certain sectors, spiritual decline, and lack of will power among the people, especially in Iraq.

Some of the outstanding people of Mecca stood in the way of Imam Husayn and warned him of the danger of the move he was making.

But he answered that he refused to pay allegiance and give his approval to a government of injustice and tyranny.

He added that he knew that wherever he turned or went he would be killed.

He would leave Mecca in order to preserve the respect for t}abuse of God and not allow this respect to be destroyed by having his blood spilled there.

While on the way to Kufah and still a few days journey away from the city, he received news that the agent of Yazid in Kufah had put to death the representative of the Imam in that city and also one of the Imam's determined supporters who was a well-known man in Kufah.

Their feet had been tied and they had been dragged through the streets.

The city and its surroundings were placed under strict observation and countless soldiers of the enemy were awaiting him.

There was no way open to him but to march ahead and to face death. It was here that the Imam expressed his definitive determination to go ahead and be martyred; and so he continued on his journey.

Approximately seventy kilometers from Kufah in a desert named Karbala', the Imam and his entourage were surrounded by the army of Yazid.

For eight days they stayed in this spot during which the circle narrowed and the number of the enemy's army increased.

Finally the Imam, with his Household and a small number of companions were encircled by an army of thirty thousand soldiers. During these days the Imam fortified his position and made a final selection of his companions.

At night he called his companions and during a short speech stated that there was nothing ahead but death and martyrdom. He added that since the enemy was concerned only with his person he would free them from all obligations so that anyone who wished could escape in the darkness of the night and save his life.

Then he ordered the lights to be turned out and most of his companions, who had joined him for their own advantage, dispersed. Only a handful of those who loved the truth about forty of his close aides and some of the Banu Hashim remained.

Once again the Imam assembled those who were left and put them to a test. He addressed his companions and Hashimite relatives, saying again that the enemy was concerned only with his person.

Each could benefit from the darkness of the night and escape the danger. But this time the faithful companions of the Imam answered each in his own way that they would not deviate for a moment from the path of truth of which the Imam was the leader and would never leave him alone.

They said they would defend his Household to the last drop of their blood and as long as they could carry a sword. On the ninth day of the month the last challenge to choose between "allegiance or war" was made by the enemy to the Imam.

The Imam asked for a delay in order to worship overnight and became determined to enter battle on the next day. On the tenth day of Muharram of the year 61(680) the Imam lined up before the enemy with his small band of followers, less than ninety persons consisting of forty of his companions, thirty some members of the army of the enemy that joined him during the night and day of war, and his Hashimite family of children, brothers, nephews, nieces and cousins.

That day they fought from morning until their final breath, and the Imam, the young Hashimites and the companions were all martyred. Among those killed were two children of Imam Hasan, who were only thirteen and eleven years old; and a five-year-old child and a suckling baby of Imam Husayn. The army of the enemy, after ending the war, plundered the haram of the Imam and burned his tents. They decapitated the bodies of the martyrs, denuded them and threw them to the ground without burial.

Then they moved the members of the haram, all of whom were helpless women and girls, along with the heads of the martyrs, to Kufah. Among the prisoners there were three male members: a twenty-two years old son of Imam Husayn who was very ill and unable to move, namely, 'Ali ibn al-Husayn, the fourth Imam; his four years old son, Muhammad ibn 'Ali, who became the fifth Imam; and finally Hasan al-Mujtaba, the son of the second Imam who was also the son-in-law of Imam Husayn and who, having been wounded during the war, lay among the dead. They found him near death and through the intercession of one of the generals did not cut off his head. Rather, they took him with the prisoners to Kufah and from there to Damascus before Yazid. The event of Karbala', the capture of the women and children of the Household of the Prophet, their being taken as prisoners from town to town and the speeches made by the daughter of 'Ali, Zaynab, and the fourth Imam who were among the prisoners, disgraced the Umayyads.

Such abuse of the Household of the Prophet annulled the propaganda which Mu'awiyah had carried out for years. The matter reached such proportions that Yazid in public disowned and condemned the actions of his agents. The event of Karbala' was a major factor in the overthrow of Umayyad's rule although its effect was delayed.

It also strengthened the roots of Shi'ism. Among its immediate results were the revolts and rebellions combined with bloody wars which continued for twelve years. Among those who were instrumental in the death of the Imam not one was able to escape revenge and punishment.

Anyone who studies closely the history of the life of Imam Husayn and Yazid and the conditions that prevailed at that time, and analyses this chapter of Islamic history, will have no doubt that in those circumstances there was no choice before Imam Husayn but to be killed. Swearing allegiance to Yazid would have meant publicly showing contempt for Islam, something which was not possible for the Imam, for Yazid not only showed no respect for Islam and its injunction but also made a public demonstration of impudently treading under foot its basis and its laws. Those before him, even if they opposed religious injunctions, always did so in the guise of religion, and at least formally respected religion.

They took pride in being companions of the Holy Prophet and the other religious figures in whom people believed. From this it can be concluded that the claim of some interpreters of these events is false when they say that the two brothers, Hasan and Husayn, had two different tastes and that one chose the way of peace and the other the way of war, so that one brother made peace with Mu'awiyah although he had an army of forty thousand while the other went to war against Yazid with an army of forty.

For we see that this same Imam Husayn, who refused to pay allegiance to Yazid for one day, lived for ten years under the rule of Mu'awiyah, in the same manner as his brother who also had endured for ten years under Mu'awiyah, without opposing him.

It must be said in truth that if Imam Hasan or Imam Husayn had fought Mu'awiyah they would have been killed without there being the least benefit for Islam.

Their deaths would have had no effect before the righteous appearing policy of Mu'awiyah, a competent politician who emphasized his being a companion of the Holy Prophet, the "scribe of the revelation," and "uncle of the faithful" and who used every stratagem possible to preserve a religious guise for his rule. Moreover, with his ability to set the stage to accomplish his desires he could have had them killed by their own people and then assumed a state of mourning and sought to revenge their blood, just as he sought to give the impression that he was avenging the killing of the third caliph.

 

al-Imam al-Husayn ibn 'Ali, peace be Upon him, said:

Beware of your apologies; for a true believer does not sin and does not have to apologize, whereas the hypocrite commits sins everyday and apologizes everyday.

When other people turn to you in need, consider it a favour of Allah. Do not be wearied of this favour, or it will move on to someone else.

Experience enhances the intellect.

* * *


Ref: (A Brief History of The Fourteen Infallibles, p. 95-110)


He, peace be on him, died, (a man desperately) thirsty, yet still striving and showing fortitude, (a man) forced to be detained, (a man) oppressed. The pledge of allegiance to him was revoked. The respect due to him was ignored. The covenant to him was not fulfilled nor the responsibility of the agreement made with him honoured.

(He died) a martyr as his father and brother, peace be on them, had done before him.

A Sample of the Outstanding Virtues of al-Husayn b. 'Ali Peace be on Him, the Merit in Visiting (His Grave) and Mention of His Tragedy [Said b. Rashid reported on the authority of Yala b. Murra, who said:] I heard the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, say: Husayn is from me and I am from Husayn. God loves whoever loves him. Husayn is indeed an (outstanding) grandson among grandsons.

[Ibn Lahia reported on the authority of Abu 'Awana (with an interrupted chain of authorities) (rafa'ahu) back to the Prophet, may God bless him and his family:]

The Apostle of God said: Al-Hasan and al-Husayn, peace be on them, are the ornaments of the throne (of Heaven). Indeed Heaven, itself, said, 'O my Lord, You have filled me with weak and poor inhabitants.

' God, the Exalted, replied to it: 'Are you not content that I have adorned your corners with al-Hasan and al-Husayn, peace be on him?' Then it swaggered as a bride swaggers with happiness.

[Abd Allah b. Maymun al-Qaddah reported on the authority of Jafar b. Muhammad al-Sadiq, peace be on them, who said:]

Al-Hasan and al-Husayn, peace be on them, were wrestling in front of the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family. Hasan, catch hold of Husayn, said the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family. Apostle of God, are you encouraging the big one against the little one? said Fatima, peace be on her. It is Gabriel, peace be on him, who is saying to al-Husayn: Husayn, catch hold of al-Hasan, replied the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family.

[Ibrahim b. al-Rafi'i reported on the authority of his father, on the authority of his grandfather, who said:]

I saw al-Hasan and al-Husayn, peace be on them, walking to the pilgrimage. They did not pass a rider who did not dismount and walk too. It became arduous for some of them.

They said to Sad b. Abi Waqqas Walking is arduous for us. We would prefer to ride but these two young lords (sayyid) are walking. Abu Muhammad, said Sad to al-Hasan, peace be on him, Walking is hard on a group of those with you, yet the people cannot make themselves feel better by riding when they see you two walking. If you rode, (it would be easier for them). We will not ride, replied al- ,Hasan, peace be on him. We have pledged ourselves to walk to the Sacred House of God on our feet. However, we will turn aside from the road. They both went aside from the people.

[Al-Awza'i has reported on the authority of 'Abd Allah b. Shaddad, on the authority of Umm al-Fadl, daughter of al-Harith: ]

She visited the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family and said: Apostle of God, I have had a strange dream during the night. What was it?, he asked. It was terrible, she said.

What was it?, he repeated. I saw (something) like a piece of your body cut up and put in my lap, she answered. You have seen well said the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family.

Fatima will give birth to a boy when she is sitting on your lap (to give birth). [She reported:] Fatima did give birth to al-Husayn, peace be on him, and he was in my lap just as the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, had said. One day I took him to the Prophet, may God bless him and his family, and I put him in his lap. His gaze turned away from me.

Behold, both the eyes of the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, were flowing with tears. I said: (May I ransom you) with my father and mother Apostle of God, what is the matter with you? "Gabriel, peace be on him, came to me," he said. "He told me that my community will seek to kill this son of mine and he brought me dust made red by his (blood)."

[Simak reported on the authority of Ibn al-Mukhariq on the authority of Umm Salama, may God be pleased with her, who said:]

One day while the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, was sitting down, and al- Husayn was sitting on his knee, his eyes suddenly filled with tears. I said to him: Apostle of God, why do I see you weeping, may I be your ransom? Gabriel, peace be on him, came to me, he said. She consoled me for the death of my son, al-Husayn, and he told me that a group of my community will kill him. May God never let them have intercession from me.

[It is reported with another chain of authorities on the authority of Umm Salama, may God be pleased with hey that she said:]

One evening the Apostle of God left us and was away for a long time. He came back, he was dishevelled and dusty and his hand was holding (something). I said to him: Apostle of God, why do I see you dishevelled and dusty? He said: I have just been on a night journey to a place in Iraq, called Karbala. There I saw the death of my son, al-Husayn, and a group of my children and the members of my family (ahl al-bayt). I could not stop (myself) from gathering (some of) their blood and here it is in my hand. He opened his hand and said: Take it and look after it. I took it. It was like red soil. I put it in a phial, fastened its top and kept it. When al-Husayn, peace be on him, left Mecca on his way to Iraq, I took out that phial every day and night. I used to smell it and look at it.

Then I would weep for his fate. On the 10th of (the month of) al-Muharram, the day on which al-Husayn, peace be on him was killed, I took it out. At the beginning of the day it was in its usual condition, but at the end of the day, behold, it was fresh blood. I shrieked (with grief) and wept. Then I restrained my anger out of fear that the enemies of the family of the Prophet) in Medina would heae and would hurry to rejoice at their misfortune. I have kept it secret up to the present time, even to the day when the messenger bringing the news of his death came to announce it. Then what I had seen was proved.

It is reported that one day the Prophet, may God bless him and his family, was sitting down. Around him were Ali, Fatima, al-Hasan and al-Husayn, peace be on them. He asked them: How would you feel if when you were killed, your tombs were scattered around (the country)? Will we die an (ordinary) death or will we be killed? al-Husayn, peace be on him, asked, Rather you will be killed unjustly, my little son, and your brother will be killed unjustly," he answered. "Your offspring will be scattered over the land. Apostle of God, who will kill us? asked al-Husayn, peace be on him. The evil men among the people, he said. Will anyone visit (our graves) after we are killed?, he asked. Yes, my little son, he told him, a group (taifa) of my community will gain my benificence and favour through visiting (your graves). On the Day of Resurrection, I will bring them to the place so that I may take them by the arms and save them from its terrors and sorrows.

[Abd Allah b. Sharik al-Amiri reported:]

I heard the followers of Ali say when 'Umar b. Sed went through the gate of the mosque: There is the killer of al-Husayn b. 'Ali, peace be on him. That was some time before he was killed.

[Salim b. Abi Hafsa reported:]

Umar b. Sa'd said to al-Husayn: Abu Abd Allah, stupid people have come to me claiming that I will kill you. They are not stupid, al Husayn, peace be on him told him. They are men who dream (of the future). Yet it pleases me that you will not enjoy the land of Iraq for long after me.

[Yusuf b. Abida reported: I heard Muhammad b. Sirin say:]

Such a redness which was in thc sky was never seen except after the killing of al-Husayn b. Al, peace be on him.

[Said al-Iskaf reported: Abu-Ja'far, peace be on him, said:]

The killer of Yahya b. Zakariyya (John the Baptist) was a son born out of wedlock. The killer of al-Husayn b. Ali was a son born out of wedlock. The sky only went red for those two.

[Sufyan b. Uyayna reported on the authority of Ali b. Zayd, on the authority of Ali b. al-Husayn, peace be on them, who said:]

We set out with al-Husayn, peace be on him. We did not stop at any halting-place without him setting off from there by (first) mentioning Yahya b. Zakariyya and his death. He would say: There was a day and it was a day of the humiliation of the world before God, when the head of Yahya b. Zakariyya was given to one of the prostitutes of the Banu Israil.

Reports have already been presented (which show) that none of the killers of al-Husayn, peace be on him, and his followers, may God be pleased with them, managed to avoid being killed or suffering tribulation in such a way as put them to shame before their death.

Al-Husayn, peace be on him, came to his death on Saturday, the 10th of (the month of) al-Muharram in the year 61 A.H. after the (time for) the mid-day prayer.

(He was) killed wrongfully, while thirsty, always showing fortitude but forced to be detained, as we have already explained. His age on that day was fifty-eight years. Of these, he spent seven with his grandfather, the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, thirty-seven with his father, the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, and forty-seven with his brother, al- Hasan, peace be on him. The period of his succession (to the Imamate) after his brother was eleven years. He, peace be on him, used to use henna and a black dye (katam). When he, peace be on him, was killed, the dye came off (the beard on) his two cheeks.

Many reports have come down about the great merit (to be acquired) by visiting his (grave) indeed of it being necessary for everyone who accepts the Imamate of al-Husayn, peace be on him, (as being bestowed on him) by God, the Mighty and High. It is reported from al-Sadiq Jafer b. Muhammad, peace be on him, that he said: Visiting the grave of al-Husayn, peace be on him, is equal to a hundred acceptable pilgrimages and a hundred acceptable lesser pilgrimages ('umra). The Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, said: Whoever visits the grave of al-Husayn, peace be on him, after the latter's death, will have heaven (as his reward).

Ref:

Kitab al Irshad

By Sheikh al Mufid

Imam Hussein had married five times. The names of his wives are: 1. Janabe Shahr Banu the daughter of Yazd Gurd, the last emperor of Iran. Imam Zaynul Abedin a.s. our fourth Imam was her son. She died within ten days of our fourth Imam's birth. 2. Janabe Rabab was the daughter of Imra'u Al Qays the chief of the tribe of Kinda.Janabe Rabab was the mother of Sakinah and the baby Abdallah (also called Ali Asghar). She was present in Kerbala with Imam Hussein a.s. and died after one year of return to Medinah after the tragedy of Kerbala. 3. Janabe Laila was the daughter of Abu Murra, the son of Urwah bin Mas'ud Al Thaqafi. Her mother was Maymunah, the daughter of Abu Sufyan and thus she was the cousin of Yazid. Her aunt Umm Sa'id, daughter of Urwah was a wife of Imam Ali a.s.. Janabe Laila was the mother of Ali Akbar. According to scholars she was not alive at the time of the Tragedy of Kerbala. Her name has not been mentioned in the old books written about Kerbala. Nor was her name mentioned in the court of Yazid and there is no account of anyone blaming Yazid for imprisoning his own cousin. 4. Janabe Umm Ishaq was the daughter of Talhah bin Ubaydallah Taimi and she is the mother of Fatema Kubra. 5. Janabe Quda'iyah was from the the tribe of Quda'ah. She gave birth to one child Jaffer who died in Childhood.

 

 A brief look at the Life of Imam Hussain (a.s)


(This is) an account of the Imam after al-Hasan b. Ali, peace be on him, (giving) the date of his birth, the evidence of his Imamate, the age he reached, the period of his succession (khalifa), the time and cause of his death, and the place of his grave. (It also provides) a selection from the (historical) reports about him.

The Imam after al-Hasan b. Ali was his brother, al-Husayn b. Ali (who was) the son of Fatima, daughter of the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, through the designation (nass) of his father and grandfather, peace be on them, and the testamentary bequest (wasiyya) of his brother, al-Hasan, peace be on him. His kunya was Abu Abd Allah (glory be to Him).

He was born in Medina, on the fifth of Shaban in the year 4 A.H. (626). His mother, Fatima, peace be on her, brought him to the Apostle of God. The latter was delighted with him and named him Husayn.

He sacrificed a ram on his behalf in the rite of aqiqa.

On the testament of the Apostle of God, he and his brother are the two lords of the youth of Heaven, and by unanimous agreement, they were the grandsons of the Prophet of Mercy.

Al-Hasan b. Ali, peace be on them, was like the Prophet, may God bless him and his family, from his head to his chest, while al-Husayn was like him from his chest to his feet.

They were the two dear ones of the Apostle of God among all his family and children. [Zadhan reported on the authority of Salman, may God be pleased with him:]

I heard the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, say concerning al-Hasan and al-Husayn, peace be on them: O God, I love both of them. Therefore love them and love whoever loves them Then he said: Whoever loves al-Hasan and al-Husayn, is one whom I love. Whomever I love, God loves, and whomever God loves, He will cause to enter Heaven.

Whoever hates them, I hate and God hates.

Whomever God hates, He will cause to enter the Fire. Then he said: These two sons of mine are my two plants of sweet basil (to sweeten) the world.

[Zirr b. Hubaysh reported on the authority of Ibn Mas'ud: ]

While the Prophet, may God bless him and his family, was praying, al-Hasan and al-Husayn came and stood behind him. When he raised his head, he took them tenderly (into his arms). When he resumed (his prayers), they resumed (theirs).

Then when he had finished, he sat one on his right knee and the other on his left knee and said: Whoever loves me, should love these two. They, peace be on them, are the two proofs (hujjatay Allah) of God of His Prophet in the contest of prayer (mubahala). After their father, the Commander of the faithful, they were the two proofs of God (hujjatay Allah) to the community concerning religion (din) and belief (milla).

[Muhammad b. Umayr has reported on the authority of his teachers (rijal) that Abu Abd Allah (i.e. Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq), peace be on him, said:]

Al-Hasan, peace be on him, said to his companions: God has two cities - one in the east and the other in the west - in which Gods creatures are never interested in disobeying Him. Yet, by God, God's proof to His creatures, both in those two and between them, is no other than myself and my brother, al-Husayn.

A narration of the same kind is reported from al-Husayn b. Ali peace be on them, when he said to the followers of Ibn Ziyad on the day of deprivation:

What is the matter with you that makes you help each other against me or (don't you see) if you kill me, you kill God's proof to yourselves? No, by God, there is not between Jabilqa and Jabirsa a son of a prophet through whom God provides proof to you other than myself.

He meant by Jabilqa and Jabirsa, the two cities which al-Hasan, peace be on him, had mentioned.

One of the conclusive pieces of evidence (burhan) of the perfection of both of them, peace be on them, and the proof of God's special regard for them both, after what we have mentioned of the contest of prayer of the Prophet, may God bless him and his family, (in which he used) them both, is the pledge (bay'a) which the Apostle of God made to them, when he never made any (other) pledge to a child.

The Qur'an also brings down the positive statement of the reward of Heaven to them both because of their works, despite the outward state of childhood in which they were.

It did not bring down that to any other like them. God said in Surat Hal ata (known also as Surat al Dahr)

"And they give foods out of love for him, to the poor, orphans and prisoners We only feed you for the sake of God; we do not want reward or thanks from you.

Indeed we fear from our Lord a hard depressing day. Therefore, God will guard them from the evil of that day, and make them meet with ease and joy, and reward them with gardens and silk because they were patient." [Ch 76: Vr 8-12]

This statement is general to them, peace be on them, with their father and their mother.

The tradition contains their assertion of that and their awareness of it; both of which indicate that the illustrious verse was about the two of them and (that) the greatest proof (hujja) to creatures was through them both. In the same way the report about the Messiah, peace be on him, speaking in the cradle was a proof of his prophethood and God's special regard for him through miraculous acts (karama) which indicated his place and position with God with regard to merit (fadl) The Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, had made clear his Imamate and the Imamate of his brother before him through designation (nass) when he said:

These two sons of mine are Imams who will experience difficulties. The testamentary bequest (wasiyya) of al-Hasan, peace be on him, to him indicated his Imamate,just as the testamentary bequest of the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, to al-Hasan, peace be on him, indicated his Imamate just as the testamentary bequest of the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, to the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, indicated his Imamate after himself.

According to what we have (just) mentioned the Imamate of al- Husayn, peace be on him, was confirmed after the death of his brother al-Hasan, peace be on him, and the obedience of all creatures to him was binding, although he did not summon them to (follow) him because of precautionary dissimulation (taqiyya) which he was following and because of the truce which existed between him and Mueawiya b. Abl Sufyan and the need to fulfil it.

In that he followed the same course as his father, the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, in terms of the establishment of his Imamate after the Prophet, may God bless him and his family, despite (his own) silence (about it), and also of the Imamate of his brother after the truce despite (his) abstention (from politics) and (his) silence.

In that they were acting according to the practices (sunan) of the Prophet of God, may God bless him and his family, when he was blockaded in al-Shi'b and when he escaped Mecca as an emigrant by hiding in a cave and he was hidden from his enemies.

When Muawiya died, the period of the truce came to an end. (It was this) which had prevented al-Husayn, peace he on him, from calling (people) to (follow) him. Then he made public his (claim to) authority as far as was possible.

Time after time he explained his right (to authority) to those who were ignorant of it until followers gathered around him.

Then he, peace be on him, urged (them) to take up the struggle (jihad) and prepared for battle.

Then with his children and the people of his house (ahl baytihi), he set out from the sanctury of God (Mecca) and the sanctury of his Apostle (Medina) towards Iraq because of the help that was sought from him by the members of his Shia who had urged him (to come) against the enemies.

His paternal cousin, Muslim b. Aqil, may God be pleased with him, had preceded him and had satisfied him of the (sincerity of their) call to God and of (their) pledge of allegiance to him to take part in the struggle. For the people of Kufa had pledged their allegiance to him (Muslim) to (do) that, and had promised (to do) it and had guaranteed help and advice to him and had given their trust and contract to him.

However it was not long before they broke their pledge, deserted him and handed him over. Then he was killed in their midst without them (trying) to stop it.

(Furthermore) they went out to (make) war against al-Husayn. They besieged him, peace be on him, prevented him from returning to God's land (i.e. Mecca) and they used force against him in such a way that he could find no one to help him, and no place of refuge from them.

They prevented him from getting water from the Euphrates so that they might gain power over him. Then they killed him. He, peace be on him, died, (a man desperately) thirsty, yet still striving and showing fortitude, (a man) forced to be detained, (a man) oppressed. The pledge of allegiance to him was revoked. The respect due to him was ignored. The covenant to him was not fulfilled nor the responsibility of the agreement made with him honoured. (He died) a martyr as his father and brother, peace be on them, had done before him.

A Sample of the Outstanding Virtues of al-Husayn b. 'Ali Peace be on Him, the Merit in Visiting (His Grave) and Mention of His Tragedy [Said b.

Rashid reported on the authority of Yala b. Murra, who said:] I heard the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, say: Husayn is from me and I am from Husayn.

God loves whoever loves him. Husayn is indeed an (outstanding) grandson among grandsons.

[Ibn Lahia reported on the authority of Abu 'Awana (with an interrupted chain of authorities) (rafa'ahu) back to the Prophet, may God bless him and his family:]

The Apostle of God said: Al-Hasan and al-Husayn, peace be on them, are the ornaments of the throne (of Heaven). Indeed Heaven, itself, said, 'O my Lord, You have filled me with weak and poor inhabitants.'

God, the Exalted, replied to it: 'Are you not content that I have adorned your corners with al-Hasan and al-Husayn, peace be on him?' Then it swaggered as a bride swaggers with happiness.

[Abd Allah b. Maymun al-Qaddah reported on the authority of Jafar b. Muhammad al-Sadiq, peace be on them, who said:]

Al-Hasan and al-Husayn, peace be on them, were wrestling in front of the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family.

Hasan, catch hold of Husayn, said the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family.

Apostle of God, are you encouraging the big one against the little one? said Fatima, peace be on her. It is Gabriel, peace be on him, who is saying to al-Husayn: Husayn, catch hold of al-Hasan, replied the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family.

[Ibrahim b. al-Rafi'i reported on the authority of his father, on the authority of his grandfather, who said:]

I saw al-Hasan and al-Husayn, peace be on them, walking to the pilgrimage. They did not pass a rider who did not dismount and walk too.

It became arduous for some of them. They said to Sad b. Abi Waqqas Walking is arduous for us. We would prefer to ride but these two young lords (sayyid) are walking. Abu Muhammad, said Sad to al-Hasan, peace be on him, Walking is hard on a group of those with you, yet the people cannot make themselves feel better by riding when they see you two walking. If you rode, (it would be easier for them).

We will not ride, replied al- ,Hasan, peace be on him. We have pledged ourselves to walk to the Sacred House of God on our feet. However, we will turn aside from the road. They both went aside from the people.

[Al-Awza'i has reported on the authority of 'Abd Allah b. Shaddad, on the authority of Umm al-Fadl, daughter of al-Harith: ]

She visited the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family and said: Apostle of God, I have had a strange dream during the night. What was it?, he asked. It was terrible, she said. What was it?, he repeated. I saw (something) like a piece of your body cut up and put in my lap, she answered.

You have seen well said the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family. Fatima will give birth to a boy when she is sitting on your lap (to give birth). [She reported:] Fatima did give birth to al-Husayn, peace be on him, and he was in my lap just as the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, had said.

One day I took him to the Prophet, may God bless him and his family, and I put him in his lap. His gaze turned away from me. Behold, both the eyes of the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, were flowing with tears.

I said: (May I ransom you) with my father and mother Apostle of God, what is the matter with you? "Gabriel, peace be on him, came to me," he said. "He told me that my community will seek to kill this son of mine and he brought me dust made red by his (blood)."

[Simak reported on the authority of Ibn al-Mukhariq on the authority of Umm Salama, may God be pleased with her, who said:]

One day while the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, was sitting down, and al- Husayn was sitting on his knee, his eyes suddenly filled with tears. I said to him: Apostle of God, why do I see you weeping, may I be your ransom? Gabriel, peace be on him, came to me, he said.

She consoled me for the death of my son, al-Husayn, and he told me that a group of my community will kill him. May God never let them have intercession from me.

[It is reported with another chain of authorities on the authority of Umm Salama, may God be pleased with hey that she said:]

One evening the Apostle of God left us and was away for a long time. He came back, he was dishevelled and dusty and his hand was holding (something). I said to him: Apostle of God, why do I see you dishevelled and dusty? He said: I have just been on a night journey to a place in Iraq, called Karbala. There I saw the death of my son, al-Husayn, and a group of my children and the members of my family (ahl al-bayt). I could not stop (myself) from gathering (some of) their blood and here it is in my hand. He opened his hand and said: Take it and look after it. I took it. It was like red soil.

I put it in a phial, fastened its top and kept it. When al-Husayn, peace be on him, left Mecca on his way to Iraq, I took out that phial every day and night. I used to smell it and look at it. Then I would weep for his fate. On the 10th of (the month of) al-Muharram, the day on which al-Husayn, peace be on him was killed, I took it out. At the beginning of the day it was in its usual condition, but at the end of the day, behold, it was fresh blood. I shrieked (with grief) and wept. Then I restrained my anger out of fear that the enemies of the family of the Prophet) in Medina would heae and would hurry to rejoice at their misfortune.

I have kept it secret up to the present time, even to the day when the messenger bringing the news of his death came to announce it. Then what I had seen was proved.

It is reported that one day the Prophet, may God bless him and his family, was sitting down. Around him were Ali, Fatima, al-Hasan and al-Husayn, peace be on them. He asked them: How would you feel if when you were killed, your tombs were scattered around (the country)? Will we die an (ordinary) death or will we be killed? al-Husayn, peace be on him, asked, Rather you will be killed unjustly, my little son, and your brother will be killed unjustly," he answered.

"Your offspring will be scattered over the land. Apostle of God, who will kill us? asked al-Husayn, peace be on him. The evil men among the people, he said. Will anyone visit (our graves) after we are killed?, he asked. Yes, my little son, he told him, a group (taifa) of my community will gain my benificence and favour through visiting (your graves). On the Day of Resurrection, I will bring them to the place so that I may take them by the arms and save them from its terrors and sorrows.

[Abd Allah b. Sharik al-Amiri reported:]

I heard the followers of Ali say when 'Umar b. Sed went through the gate of the mosque: There is the killer of al-Husayn b. 'Ali, peace be on him. That was some time before he was killed.

[Salim b. Abi Hafsa reported:]

Umar b. Sa'd said to al-Husayn: Abu Abd Allah, stupid people have come to me claiming that I will kill you. They are not stupid, al Husayn, peace be on him told him. They are men who dream (of the future).

Yet it pleases me that you will not enjoy the land of Iraq for long after me.

[Yusuf b. Abida reported: I heard Muhammad b. Sirin say:]

Such a redness which was in thc sky was never seen except after the killing of al-Husayn b. Al, peace be on him.

[Said al-Iskaf reported: Abu-Ja'far, peace be on him, said:]

The killer of Yahya b. Zakariyya (John the Baptist) was a son born out of wedlock. The killer of al-Husayn b. Ali was a son born out of wedlock. The sky only went red for those two.

[Sufyan b. Uyayna reported on the authority of Ali b. Zayd, on the authority of Ali b. al-Husayn, peace be on them, who said:]

We set out with al-Husayn, peace be on him. We did not stop at any halting-place without him setting off from there by (first) mentioning Yahya b.

Zakariyya and his death. He would say: There was a day and it was a day of the humiliation of the world before God, when the head of Yahya b. Zakariyya was given to one of the prostitutes of the Banu Israil.

Reports have already been presented (which show) that none of the killers of al-Husayn, peace be on him, and his followers, may God be pleased with them, managed to avoid being killed or suffering tribulation in such a way as put them to shame before their death.

Al-Husayn, peace be on him, came to his death on Saturday, the 10th of (the month of) al-Muharram in the year 61 A.H. after the (time for) the mid-day prayer. (He was) killed wrongfully, while thirsty, always showing fortitude but forced to be detained, as we have already explained.

His age on that day was fifty-eight years. Of these, he spent seven with his grandfather, the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, thirty-seven with his father, the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, and forty-seven with his brother, al- Hasan, peace be on him. The period of his succession (to the Imamate) after his brother was eleven years.

He, peace be on him, used to use henna and a black dye (katam). When he, peace be on him, was killed, the dye came off (the beard on) his two cheeks.

Many reports have come down about the great merit (to be acquired) by visiting his (grave) indeed of it being necessary for everyone who accepts the Imamate of al-Husayn, peace be on him, (as being bestowed on him) by God, the Mighty and High.

It is reported from al-Sadiq Jafer b. Muhammad, peace be on him, that he said: Visiting the grave of al-Husayn, peace be on him, is equal to a hundred acceptable pilgrimages and a hundred acceptable lesser pilgrimages ('umra). The Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, said: Whoever visits the grave of al-Husayn, peace be on him, after the latter's death, will have heaven (as his reward).

Imam Hussein had married five times. The names of his wives are:

 

1. Janabe Shahr Banu the daughter of Yazd Gurd, the last emperor of Iran. Imam Zaynul Abedin a.s. our fourth Imam was her son. She died within ten days of our fourth Imam's birth.

2. Janabe Rabab was the daughter of Imra'u Al Qays the chief of the tribe of Kinda.Janabe Rabab was the mother of Sakinah and the baby Abdallah (also called Ali Asghar). She was present in Kerbala with Imam Hussein a.s. and died after one year of return to Medinah after the tragedy of Kerbala.

3. Janabe Laila was the daughter of Abu Murra, the son of Urwah bin Mas'ud Al Thaqafi. Her mother was Maymunah, the daughter of Abu Sufyan and thus she was the cousin of Yazid. Her aunt Umm Sa'id, daughter of Urwah was a wife of Imam Ali a.s.. Janabe Laila was the mother of Ali Akbar. According to scholars she was not alive at the time of the Tragedy of Kerbala. Her name has not been mentioned in the old books written about Kerbala. Nor was her name mentioned in the court of Yazid and there is no account of anyone blaming Yazid for imprisoning his own cousin.

4. Janabe Umm Ishaq was the daughter of Talhah bin Ubaydallah Taimi and she is the mother of Fatema Kubra.

5. Janabe Quda'iyah was from the the tribe of Quda'ah. She gave birth to one child Jaffer who died in Childhood.


Ref: The Book of Guidance, Kitab al Irshad  By Sheikh al Mufid


 

 

Our Hussain (a.s), Mourning him and his Karbala

 

By al-'Allama al-Sheikh al-Ameeni.

Translated by Shaun Astarabadi,

 


It is accepted to the Islamic nation, due to the finality of the Prophethood and its particular concerns, that the holy prophet (s.a.w) had the knowledge about the wars, trials and that which happened to his family-house hold, their progeny, and relatives, more or less, of the enormous tragedies, of the dark surprises of time, of the hard events, wide killings, and to whatever else that has entered on them from torture, trickery, ill-treatment, capture and imprisonment.

This knowledge of his (s.a.w) is from among the wide, unconditional, and fully general (master) leadership on every creation. As not acting on this information, using it for forgiveness and patience (instead), as if nothing was going to occur, all while he could have taken these men without any consequence. These unjust men of tyranny, men of corruption, he (s.a.w) (could have taken them) using his knowledge of that he knew of them. To uphold legal punishment before they attack, punish before the crime, to sever the ties with the offending clan, not to have good relation with the aggressors; and to send away those whom he knew of aggression bad fortune and animosity to his family from his field, away from his person. All of this is also from the concerns of the leadership. No human, ever, can carry this heavy burden. While this knowledge and this forgiveness is not combined in any of the sons of Adam. This cannot be conceived in any human except in one who has the leadership (Wilayah).

This is an important subject, very wide, form the sciences of religion, and if we were to go into its details we would end up with a heavy book.

This condition caused the Messenger of Allah (s.w.t) to look to all of these events and tragedies which were to inflict his household, as long as he lived, the essence of his kidneys (Hassan & Hussain), his love and a part of himself (Fatimah) and her cousin his greatest supporter in truth (Ali) and from their good progeny; as if he was viewing the events from behind a thin screen. Whenever he looked to one of them, up close, his knowledge, as a matter of fact, would play the scenes before his eyes. Therefore, for the length of his life, he displayed his sorrow and depression among those close to him, naturally. His sorrow does not separate from him; he lived with it, crying secretly, hiding the longing and swallows the pain.

Whenever he found the appropriate environment he would attempt to cure the pain of his heart, put off the heat in his heart and the fire of sorrow by hugging one of his family close to his chest, he would smell and kiss pouring his tears, with crying eyes and his tong carries what amuses his feelings.

You would see him (s.a.w) holding on to Ali (a.s), the master of his progeny, his cousin and father of his "sons", in the middle of the road he would kiss him and repeat his saying: "My father is your ransom. (You) The lonely the martyr." As reported by 'Aesha, the mother of believers,

 

Sunni references:

* al-Hafidh abu-Yaala al-Mousilly, in his Musnad, and many scholars took from him.

 

Many of the narrators reported the correct hadeeth of Ibn-Abbas: "I went out with the prophet (s.a.w) and Ali (a.s) by the walls of Madinah, we passed by a garden. Ali (a.s) said: What a beautiful garden this is Oh' prophet of Allah? He (the prophet) said: Your garden in Paradise is more beautiful than this. Then he pointed with his hand to his (Ali's) head and beard and cried till he was loudly crying. We said: What makes you cry? He said: Hatred in the hearts of a people, they do not display till they loose me."

In a narration according to Anas bin Malik: "Then the prophet put his head on one of Ali's shoulders and cried. He said to him: What makes you cry, Oh, messenger of Allah? He said: Hatred in the chests of peoples, they don't display until I depart from this world."

Also, according to Ameerul Moemineen (Ali): "When the road was clear for me, he hugged me and cried loudly. I said: Oh messenger of Allah, what makes you cry? He said: Hatred in the chests of peoples, they don't display to you until after me."

Sunni Ref. where all three narrations are recorded:

* Musnad al-Bazzaz;

* al-Mu'jam al-Kabeer, al-Tabarani

* Musnad abu-Ya'la

* Tareekh al-Sham, Ibn 'Asakir

* Majma' al-Haithami

* More references can be found in "Al-Ghadeer", by al-Ameeni.

 

The prophet (sa.w) used to attend to his (Ali's) patience and solidarity and say (s.a.w) to him (a.s): "How is your patience if that was dyed (colored) from this? Pointing with his hand to his beard and head. Ali said: Wasn't I tested when I was tested, so this is not from among the things of patience, but it is from those of good tidings and dignity." So the prophet (s.a.w) is pleased with such beautiful expressions, which describes the greatness of Ali's self and his love in the way of Allah, Almighty.

Sunni Ref:

* al-Mu'jam al-Kabeer, al-Tabarani.

You see him (sa.w) embrace abu-Mohammad – al-Hassan, the son, to his chest and kiss him on his mouth and navel, because of what he knew that his contents from his mouth to his navel would be cut by the poison.

Then he would embrace Hussain, the son, towards him to smell and kiss. To kiss the spots where swords, arrows and stabs are to fall. He would concentrate on his lips, knowing that they will be hit by the rod.

He (s.a.w) mourns his Hussain, his flower (as he used to call them), time after time, in the houses of the Mothers of the Believers (his wives). Whenever his sorrow is hard on him, he would take the Hussain in his lap and brings him along to the mosque, to the gathering of Sahaba while crying. His tears falling, he would display to them the infant Hussain with the sand of Karbala in his hand and say: "My nation (Ummah) will kill him, and this is the dirt of Karbala." Or he would take the dirt smell it and cry, with the mention of his murder and death, saying: "The smell of Karb wa Balaa (sorrow and trial)." Or would say: "By The One who owns my soul, it saddens me: Who is this who kills Hussain after me?" Or would say: "Wow to 'Karb and Balaa'", or "Karbalaa: the land of Karb (deep sorrow) and Balaa (painful trial)." Or puts Hussain on his lap, with his red dirt in his hand, while crying and say: "I wish I could express my self! Who kills you after me?"

You would see Fatima (as), when her father (s) tells her that she is to catch up with him fast from among his family, it pleases her to hear this news [*see references below]. He is but telling her that the life of the family of Mohammed is surrounded by treachery and sad surprises. If it were not for such fears, from those enormous tragedies pouring into their field, why would Fatimah al-Zahraa dislike her life? Her happy life ought to be the best life, most pleasant and greatest of pride: Having a husband alike to her father in his virtues; having sons like Hussan and Hussain, the flowers of the messenger of Allah (s.w.t), the masters of the youth of Paradise - none equal, any beautiful description falls short; and from among the girls such as Zainab, the jewel of completeness and honor.

* Sunni Ref:

* Musnad Ahmad, Ahmad bin Hanbal

* Musnad abu-Ya'la, abu-Ya'la al-Mousulli

* Musannaf Ibn Abi Sheiba

* al-Khasaes, al-Nisaei

* Saheeh al-Tirmithi

* Mushkil al-Athar, al-Tahawi

* al-'Ilal, al-Darqutni

* Huliat al-Abrar, abu-Naeem

* al-Dalael, al-Bayhaqi

* and many others via Umul Moemineen 'Aesha

 

So why is Fatimah, at that time, displeased with life, when she is still in the beginning of her youth, has not reached her aims and has not gotten what she hopes out of life?

Why would she ask her God to hasten her death, when she has not attained what mothers wish to see in their sons? For such hopes ease (mothers') pains and sweeten the bitterness of this world. They sacrifice all to see these hopes come true. Why would she remove her hand from her infants, clears her lap from them and accept orphaning them when they have reach their beautiful youth?

Why would she be 'pleased' to wither her flowers, the flowers of the family of Mohammed, while they are in their most beautiful stage, and she has not attained their blossom? Why would she leave her garden and the flowers have not opened?

Why would she like to separate from her spouse and leave her love to accompany sorrow, pain and emptiness? His sorrow after her is everlasting and his nights in her separation are insomnia?

Why is this happiness and pleasure in becoming close to death?

All of this is nothing more than escaping from the gravity of these tragedies that she knew well, taken from her father the truthful. For Fatimah (as) did not imagine for herself or hope for a savior or shelter which she could trust could give her peace and protection, except to be near her Generous God and declining this life, inclusive of its bitterness and sweetness.

What can Fatimah do with life and she sees her father (s), for the duration of his life, allied to sorrow? He spent his life with a teary eye, a sorrowful heart and grief within him because of distress over his family. He mourns for his son Hussain from the start of his birth and on and on, when a baby, an infant, and a boy. Allah had taken the houses of his prophet (s.a.w) places of sorrow and crying since the birth of dear Hussain. The angels of his god arrive to him (a.s) in groups and singular, time after time, every now and then, announcing (the future death) of Hussain, they bring him his red dirt (earth) symbolizing in that his upcoming murder and death.

These are important Islamic historic events, a slice of which history did recorded for us, even though, due to the past circumstances only little reached us. Here is a brief list for you.

A rite (maatam) in the house of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w)

"Ahmed and Ibn al-Dhahhak narrated from Ali (ra), said: I entered on the prophet (s.a.w) and his eyes a flooded, I said: Oh! Prophet of Allah, anyone made you angry? Why are your eyes flooded? He said: Gabriel just left me telling me that Hussain will be killed by the river Euphrates. He (prophet) said: So he (Gabriel) said: Do you want me to let you smell his dirt (from his burial pot)? I said: yes! He reached with his hand and grabbed and handful of dirt and gave it to me. So I could not help it and my eyes were flooded."

Sunni Ref:

* Thakhaer al-Uqba, Muhibbuldeen al-Tabari, p148.

A rite of infancy

"Abu Abdullah Mohammed bin Ali al-Jawhari, in Baghdad, told us: Abul Ahwas Mohammed bin al-Haitham al-Qadhi, from Mohammed bin Musaab, from al-Awzaei, from abi Ammar Shaddad bin Abdullah, from Ummul Fadhl the daughter of al-Harith. That she entered on the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w) and she said: Oh! Messenger of Allah, I saw a strange dream last night. He said: And what is it? She said: It is difficult. He said: And what is it? She said: I saw, as if, a piece of your body was severed and was put in my lap! The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w) said: You saw good - Fatima will give birth, God willing, a boy so he will be in your lap. Then Fatima gave birth to al-Hussain and he was in my lap - just as the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w) said. So I entered one day on the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w) and put his in his lap, but I noticed that the eyes of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w) pouring tears! She said: So I said: Oh! Prophet of Allah, my parents are your ransom, what is with you? He said: Gabriel (pbuh) came to me and informed me that my nation (ummah) will kill this son of mine. I said: This one? He said: Yes, and he brought me dirt from his red dirt."

al-Hakim said: This is a correct hadeeth (Saheeh) on the conditions of (Bukhari and Muslim) but they did not print it. He produced it in page 179, he said: Narrated abu al-Abbas Muhammad bin Ya'qoob, Muhammad bin Is-haq al-Sana'ni, Muhammad bin Isma'eel bin abi Summaiya, Muhammad bin Mus'ab, al-Awza'ei, abi Ammar that Ummul Fadhl said: The messenger of Allah (s.a.w) said - while Hussain in his lap - that "Gabriel (a.s) informed me that my nation (ummati) kills al-Hussain."

He (al-Hakim) said: Ibn abi Summaiya has summarized this hadeeth. Other than Muhammad bin Mus'ab have narrated it in full.

Sunni Ref:

* al-Mustadrak al-Saheeh, al-Hafidh al-Hakim al-Nisapouri, v3, p176.

* Dalael al-Nubouwa, al-Hafidh al-Baihaqi.

 

It was produced by al-Hafidh al-Baihaqi in "Dalael al-Nubouwa" under the subject of Hussain (a.s). He said: Muhammad bin Abdullah al-Haifdh (al-Hakim al Nisapouri), abu Abdullah Mohammed bin Ali al-Jawhari in Baghdad, with the same narrators and text, as mentioned.

Al-Hafidh bin 'Asakir in Tareekh al-Shamm (History of Shamm) said: abu 'Abdullah al-Gharawi, abu-Bakr al-Baihaqi, Muhammad bin 'Abdullah al-Hafidh, the same as above.

Also said: Informed us abu al-Qasim bin al-Samarqandi, abu al-Hussain bin al-Naqoor, abu al-Hassan Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Umran (known as ibnul Jundi) abu Rawq Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Bakr al-Harati, al-'Abbas bin al-Faraj al-Raqqashi, Muhammad bin Ismaeel abu Summaiya, Muhammad bin Mus'ab supported as follows:

"I saw, Oh Messenger of Allah, a sighting I find too great to describe to you. He said: Tell it. She said: I saw as if a piece of you was cut and put in my lap! He (s.a.w) said: Fatima is pregnant, she will give birth to a boy whom I will name Hussain and she will put him in your lap. She said: So Fatimah gave birth to Hussain and he was in my lap, to take care of him, so he entered on me one day and Hussain was with me and started playing with him for a while. Then his eyes filled with tears, so I said: what makes you cry? He said: This is Gabriel informing me that my nation (ummati) kills this son of mine!"

All the narrators are trusted and the hadeeth is "saheeh".

A rite in the house of al-Sayyidah Ummu Salamah, Ummul Moemineen

Narration by Ya'la bin 'Ubaid, Musa al-Jahani, Salih bin Arbad al-Nakhei, Ummu Salamah said: "al-Hussain entered on the prophet (s.a.w), while I was sitting at the door, so I saw in the hand of the prophet (s.a.w) something he turned over while (Hussain) sleeping on his stomach. I said: Oh messenger of Allah, I looked and saw you turning something over in your hand when the kid was sleeping on your stomach and your tears were pouring? He said: Jibraeel came to me with the sand upon which he will be killed. And he informed me that my nation (umma) will kill him."

Sunni Ref:

* al-Musannaf, by al-Hafidh abu Bakr bin abi Shaibah, v 12

Narrated al-Hussain bin Is-haq al-Tustury, Ali bin Bahr, Issa bin Younis. And 'Ubaid bin Ghannam, abu-Bakr bin abi Sheibah, Ya'la bin 'Ubaid, the both said: Mousa bin Salih al Juhani, Salih bin Arbad, from Ummu Salama (ra) said: "The messenger of Allah said: Sit at the door, and don't let anyone enter on me. So I sat at the door, then Hussain (a.s) came by so I went to take him, but he raced me and entered on his grandfather. When that took long, I peaked from the door and saw you turning something in your hands and your tears running, and the kid on your stomach? He said: Yes, Gabriel (a.s) came to me and informed me that my nation (umma) will kill him. He brought me the sand on which he will be killed, which I was turning in my hands."

Sunni Ref:

* al-Moejam al-Kabeer, al-Hafidh al-Tabarani, Subject of the martyr al-Hussain

A rite in the house of al-Sayyidah 'Aesha, Ummul Moemineen

Narrated Ali bin Mohammad, 'Uthman bin Muqsim, al-Muqbari, from 'Aesha said: "While the messenger of Allah (s.a.w) was laying down, al-Hussain came crawling towards him so I moved him away from him and I got up to do something. So he got close to him and he woke up crying. So I said: What makes you cry? He said that: Gabriel showed me the sand on which Hussain will be killed. The anger of Allah is great on whomever sheds his blood. He opened his hands, in which a grab of sand. He said: Oh, 'Aesha, by the One whom my soul is in His hands, it saddens me! Who is this from my nation (umma) who kills Hussain after I am gone?!"

All the men of the narration are documented as trusted.

Sunni Ref:

* al-Taba'qat al-Kubra, Ibn Saad

 

A rite in a gathering of the companions

Mu'awiya bin Husham, Ali bin Salih, Yazeed bin abi Ziad, Ibraheem (bin Yazeed al-Nakhei), 'Alqama (bin Qays al-Nakhei), 'Abdullah bin Masoud said: "While we were at the (house of) messenger of Allah (s.a.w) , a group from Bani Hashim approached. When the prophet (s.a.w) saw them his eyes overflowed and his color changed. I said to him: We see something you hate in your face? He said: We are the people of the household (Ahlul Bayt) Allah has chosen for us the thereafter over this world and that the family of my household will encounter after me trials, dispersement and expulsion. Until a people come forward from the east, along with them black flags, they ask for justice but it is not offered. So they fight and strike and are then given what they asked for. They don't accept it until they push it forward to a man from my Ahlul Bayt. Then he fills it with justice as they filled it with injustice. Therefore, whomever lives to see that from among you should come to them, even if crawling on the snow."

All the men of narration are trustworthy, as recorded.

Sunni Ref:

* al-Musannaf, al-Hafidh abu-Bakr bin abi Shaibah, v 12

* al-Sunan al-Saheeh, Ibn Majeh, v 2, p 518, section of appearance of the Mahdi

* al-Hafidh abu-Jaafar al-'Uqayli (with the addition: "We said: Oh, messenger of Allah - We are not happy to see in your face something you hate." )

* al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v 4, p 464.

* Akhbar Asbahan, by al-Hafidh abu Naeem al-Asbahani, v 2, p 12.

* al-Moejam al-Kabeer, al-Tabarani, v 3.

 

A rite in Karbala by the father of the martyr, the Commander of Believers Ali (as)

Muhammad bin 'Ubaid, Sharhabeel bin Mudrik, Abdullah bin Naji: "his father walked with Ali (a.s), when they reached Nainawa, the departure point to Siffien, Ali called: Be patient aba 'Abdullah! Be patient aba 'Abdullah at the river al-Furat (Euphrates)! I said: And what? He said: I entered on the messenger of Allah (s.w.t) one day and his eyes overflowing. I said: Oh, prophet of Allah! Anybody angered you? Why are your eyes overflowing (with tears)? He said: But Gabriel just left me and informed me: That al-Hussain will be killed at the river al-Furat (Shattul Furat). He said: Do you want me to show you from his sand? He said: I said yes. He extended his hand and grabbed and handful of dirt and gave it to me. So I could not help it, my eyes overflowed."

Sunni Ref:

* al-Masnad, Ahmad bin Hanbal, v 2, pp 60-61.

Ibn Saad, Ali bin Muhammad, Yahya bin Zakariya, a man heard it from 'Amir al-Sha'bi say: "When Ali (a.s) passed by Karbalaa in his march to Siffien and lined up with Nainawa - a village on the Euphrates - he stopped and called one of them men: Tell aba 'Abdullah (al-Hussain ) what this land is called? He said: Karbalaa. Then he cried until the earth was wet from his tears. He then said: I entered on the messenger of Allah (s.w.t) and he was crying. So I said: What makes you cry? He said: Gabriel was with me, just now, and informed me: that my son al-Hussain will be killed at the banks of Furat in a location called Karbala. Then Gabriel grabbed a handful of dirt and let me smell it. So I could not help it, my eyes overflowed."

 

Sunni Ref:

* al-Tabaqat, Ibn Saad

* al-Musannaf, Ibn Abi Shaibeh, v12 (with "Patience aba 'Abdullah, patience aba 'Abdullah."

* al-Moejam al-Kabeer, al-Tabarani, v 1

* Tareekh al-Shamm, Ibn 'Asakir

 

 


K2 User